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The Most Popular Programming Languages ​​of 2020

The most important skill to learn in today's world is to know how to write a computer program. Nowadays, computers have entered almost every industry.

Among the indispensable programming languages ​​for fields such as information technologies, data analysis, web design and engineering , which one do you think will shape your career? How many programming languages ​​do you need to know to continue your dream career?

A common question for beginners to code is which programming language they should invest in that is worth learning. Is it one of the big three like Java, JavaScript and Python , or Rust or Kotlin?

Among the indispensable programming languages ​​for fields such as information technologies
Most preferred programming languages ​​(Indeed) by employers of the last four years in the USA

2020 Indeed data are ranked among the most popular programming languages ​​according to the demand in the business world; It shows Python, Java, JavaScript, C ++, C #, PHP, and Perl.

Before moving on to our list of the most popular programming languages ​​of 2020, we can offer a small suggestion; In addition to focusing on the salary you can get, it is useful to consider programming languages ​​that are fast-learning and adaptable to popular technology transformations.

Python

Python developed as a side project in the 1990s.

Do you think Guido van Rossum thought that when Python developed as a side project in the 1990s, it would one day become the most popular programming language?

Python's language design is highly productive, elegant, simple and powerful. Python has set the gold standard for developer experience and has greatly influenced modern languages ​​such as Go and Julia.

PYPL, the programming language ranking site, announced Python as the number one programming language in 2019. Python became the most demanded programming language in the market, with 74,000 job postings in the US in January 2020 . In addition, Python ranked third with an annual salary return of $ 120k (Indeed).

Python is widely used for developing scalable web applications. It is easy to use and distribute.

With huge community support, open source libraries, frameworks, and modules, Python is one of the best programming languages ​​every developer should learn, and it can take a leap forward in your career.

Pros of Python:

  • Python is an open source programming language with consistent syntax and popular frameworks, including Django.
  • Python has top-notch integration with C / C ++ and can load CPU heavy tasks into C / C ++ without any problems.
  • Creating and using classes and objects is easy thanks to OOP features.
  • Python offers extensive library support; It provides a powerful set of tools for math and statistics with various libraries such as NumPy, Pandas, SciPy, Scikit-Learn.
  • Mastering scientific fields such as Machine Learning, Deep Learning and Data Science.
  • It is considered the best programming language to learn in the beginner stage. It is very easy to learn and use.
  • It focuses on code readability.
  • Has the ability to scale even the most complex applications
  • Ideal for building prototypes and testing ideas faster.
  • It has an ever-growing developer community.
  • Provides support for multiple platforms and systems
  • It promises broad business opportunities.

Cons of Python:

  • It is not suitable for mobile computing.
  • Python has to do some extra work while the code is being executed. Therefore, if "speed" is important to your project, it is not recommended.
  • Uses a large amount of memory.
  • Programming in Python is easy and stress-free, but the database access layer is less developed compared to popular technologies such as JDBC and ODBC.
  • Python is a dynamically typed language, the data type of a variable can always change. A variable containing an integer may hold a string in the future, which can lead to Runtime Errors. This is why Python programmers need to do extensive testing of applications.

Python Usage Areas:

  • Artificial intelligence,
  • Machine learning,
  • Web applications
  • GUI based desktop applications
  • Data science
  • Network servers
  • Popular projects using Python; YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, SurveyMonkey, Dropbox, Reddit, Quora, Spotify .

PHP

PHP has been used in web development for 35 years.

PHP is a dynamic programming language commonly used for developing server-side Web applications. 50% of the websites on the Internet are built with PHP as a server-side scripting language, powering any website.

Programming language ranking site TIOBE ranked PHP as the 8th most popular programming language in January 2020.

Developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994 and gradually losing popularity, PHP has been used in web development for 35 years and has many successful and stable frameworks.

In the US, the average annual salary of a PHP developer is around $ 84,000.

Pros of PHP:

  • PHP is one of the highly efficient server-side web development languages
  • It is easy to learn.
  • It has many powerful frameworks.
  • You can easily start making web pages.
  • Offers top-notch debugging with Xdebug.
  • It has huge community support and a huge ecosystem.
  • It has many automation tools for testing and deploying applications.
  • Supports object-oriented and functional programming paradigms.
  • It offers built-in support for working with MySQL.
  • It promises broad business opportunities.

Cons of PHP:

  • Building websites entirely with PHP takes a lot more time than other options.
  • Requires more extensions.
  • It is poor for debugging.
  • Since it is one of the open source languages, it is subject to criticism in terms of security.

PHP Usage Areas:

  • Web Applications,
  • Content Management Systems,
  • E-Commerce Applications
  • Popular projects using PHP; Facebook , Wikipedia, Yahoo, WordPress, MailChimp, Flickr .

Java

Java is a powerful, feature-rich, multi-paradigm, interpreted programming language with a moderate learning curve and high developer productivity.

Programs designed in Java can run over a network regardless of which operating system the user is running. Also, Java is widely used for Android applications.

Java is a powerful, feature-rich, multi-paradigm, interpreted programming language with a moderate learning curve and high developer productivity.

Backward compatibility of Java is a very important requirement for business applications. If you are looking for a developmental job in a large organization, the language you should learn is Java.

Google's creation of Android Studio, the Java-based Android development framework, has created a great opportunity for Java developers.

Almost every business needs an Android App, as it has billions of Android users. According to data Java Indeed, in January 2020 69 thousand is the second programming language with the most demanding jobs in the United States (first Python).

Pros of Java:

  • Java is known to be extremely stable
  • It offers high quality code compilation and high stability.
  • It offers a large number of open source libraries.
  • It has automatic memory allocation and garbage collection feature.
  • It follows the OOP paradigm.
  • There is a stack allocation system.
  • JVM offers a high degree of platform independence.
  • It is extremely secure due to the exclusion of the explicit pointer and the inclusion of a security manager responsible for defining the access of classes.
  • Ideal for distributed computing.
  • It offers a large number of APIs for performing different tasks such as database connectivity, networking, utilities, and XML parsing.
  • It offers multi-use support.
  • Portable between operating systems
  • It is easy to learn.
  • It promises broad business opportunities.

Cons of Java

  • Java programs are slower than locally compiled programs written in C or C ++.
  • In Java, memory is managed through garbage collection, so each time the garbage collector runs, it disrupts the performance of the application. The main reason for this is that the garbage collector only works when all other teeth are not working.
  • Since 2019, Oracle expects users to pay for Java Standard Edition 8 when used for purposes such as business, commerce, and production. So whenever you need updates and bug fixes, you may be charged for the number of users or processor you have.
  • Lack of templates limits building high quality data structures.
  • Java's level of detail makes the code extremely complex.

Usage Areas of Java:

  • Java is the undisputed king of Enterprise Software Development; It is used to create enterprise-scale web applications.
  • Most applications in the Google Play store are written in Java, according to Google Trends.
  • Popular projects using Java; Twitter, LinkedIn, Amazon, eBay .

C / C ++

C ++ is widely used by competitive programmers due to its extremely fast and stable nature.

C and C ++; They are programming languages ​​with the same basic syntax.

Developed in 1973, C is one of the most popular programming languages. C ++ is very close to the C language; It takes the concept of object-oriented programming and combines it with C's syntax and power.

If you want to become a system-level programmer, the language you should learn is C and C ++.

One of the most complex programming languages, C ++ is widely used by competitive programmers due to its extremely fast and stable nature. C ++ also has a ready-to-use template library for various data structures, arithmetic operations, and algorithms.

One of the fastest and most powerful languages, C is probably the most influential programming language in history because it provides low-level access to memory and compiles machine instructions, and it has affected almost all languages ​​on this list.

C provides full control over basic hardware and can run on any platform. Compilers of many other programming languages ​​such as Ruby, PHP, Python are written in C.

Like C, C ++ also provides full control over basic hardware and can run on any platform such as GPU, TPU, Container, Cloud, Mobile devices or Microcontroller and can take advantage of any hardware.

C ++ is very fast and is used extensively in critical and resource constrained systems. Many fantastic software such as Java Virtual Machine, Chrome V8 Engine are written in C ++.

C and C ++ Pros:

  • C ++ has rich compiler and library support.
  • C makes it easy to access blocked or hidden objects with other programming languages.
  • Programs created with C and C ++ execute faster than most programming languages.
  • C and C ++ are the foundation for understanding more complex programming languages.
  • C ++ is preferred for multi-device, multi-platform application development.
  • Offering a high degree of portability, C is a procedural language with a set of function modules and blocks. These make it easy to debug, test and maintain programs.
  • With C and C ++, programs are more efficient and easy to understand.
  • C and C ++ work close to system hardware and therefore offer a low level of abstraction.
  • C ++ offers exception handling and function overload support.

C and C ++ Cons:

  • Both have complex syntax.
  • C does not support the program namespace.
  • C cannot solve programming challenges in the modern world.
  • C ++ has a less efficient object oriented system compared to other OOP based programming languages.
  • With C, you have to manually create high-level structures.
  • There is no "garbage collection" or dynamic memory allocation in either programming language.
  • Neither has runtime checking.
  • There is no strict type control in C.
  • Both are not recommended easy languages ​​for beginners to learn programming.
  • C and C ++ can cause buffer overflow and memory corruption issues.
  • C has a smaller standard library.

C and C ++ Usage Areas:

  • Almost all low-level systems such as operating systems, file systems are written in C and C ++.
  • C is used in areas such as IoT (Internet of Things) and Real Time Systems, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Embedded systems.s
  • C ++; It has a wide variety of application areas such as games, GUI applications and real-time mathematical simulations.
  • Popular projects using C; Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac, iOS, Android, Windows Phone cores, Oracle Database, MySQL
  • Popular projects using C ++; Adobe products, Mozilla browser and Microsoft

Javascript

Brendan Eich developed the first Javascript prototype in just ten days, and software developers mocked JavaScript in the early period for its poor language design and lack of features.
ACCORDING TO INDEED JANUARY 2020 DATA, JAVASCRIPT TAKES PLACE IN THE 4th PLACE AFTER RUBBY, SWIFT AND PYTHON, AMONG THE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES WITH AN ANNUAL AVERAGE OF 114 THOUSAND $.

Brendan Eich developed the first Javascript prototype in just ten days, and software developers mocked JavaScript in the early period for its poor language design and lack of features. Over the years, JavaScript has evolved into a highly paradigmatic, high-level, dynamic programming language.

JavaScript, which has undergone a major modernization and revision in the last few years, is one of the most widely used programming languages ​​in the world and has versatile application areas such as browsers, servers, mobile devices, cloud, containers, microcontrollers.

JavaScript is the undisputed king in browser programming. In web development, JavaScript based SPA frameworks such as React, Vue.js, Angular are predominant. Thanks to Node.js, JavaScript offers event-driven programming that is particularly suitable for I / O tasks.

Pros of JavaScript:

  • Client-side JavaScript is very fast. It works immediately in the web browser as there is no compilation requirement.
  • It provides rich interfaces to websites.
  • It is versatile.
  • It is the programming language of the web.
  • It offers regular updates with the ECMA specification.
  • It has various plugins like Greasemonkey to extend the functionality.
  • It has great resource and community support.
  • It works highly compatible with other programming languages.
  • It offers access to a variety of frameworks.
  • It has data validation functionality.
  • It is compatible with various programming languages.
  • It is easy to learn.
  • It promises broad business opportunities.

Cons of JavaScript:

  • Client Side Security: Since the JavaScript code is visible to the user, it can be used for malicious purposes.
  • Lack of Debug Facility: Although some HTML editors support debugging, they are not as efficient as other editors such as C / C ++ editors. Also, it is difficult for the developer to detect the problem as the browser does not show any errors.
  • Single Inheritance: JavaScript only supports single inheritance. Some programs may require this object oriented language feature.
  • Static Bitwise Function: JavaScript stores a number as a 64-bit floating point number and operators work on 32-bit bitwise operands. JavaScript converts numbers to 32-bit signed integers, runs on them, and converts them back to 64-bit JavaScript numbers. This continuous conversion takes more time for the number to be converted to an integer. This increases the time required to run the script and reduces its speed.
  • A single code error can stop all JavaScript code from rendering on the website.
  • When the code is executed on the user's machine, many people choose to disable JavaScript for fear of being used for a malicious purpose.
  • It can be interpreted differently by different browsers. Therefore, the code must be run on various platforms before it is released. Older browsers do not support some new functions and we need to check those as well.

JavaScript Usage Areas:

  • Web Development (JavaScript is often used to enrich and interactive web pages. With Javascript you can add pop-ups, effects and small games to web applications).
  • There are usage areas such as backend development, mobile application development and serverless computing.
  • JavaScript can be used for both client and server-side programming with the publication of ECMAScript 6 and frameworks such as Angular, Node, Express, and React.
  • Popular projects using JavaScript; Yahoo, eBay, Amazon, Wikipedia .

Kotlin

the popularity of Kotlin, the fourth most liked programming language in 2019, can be explained by the growing number of Android users and therefore Android-based devices.
IF YOU THINK SERIOUSLY ABOUT DEVELOPING ANDROID APPLICATIONS, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT YOU LEARN KOTLIN ASAP.

Jet Brains; It is the company behind IDE IntelliJ, which developed Kotlin in 2015 running on JVM and complementing Java's shortcomings.

The best thing about Kotlin is that it is much simpler than Java, unlike Scala, and offers Golang or Python-like developer productivity in JVM.

According to Stack Overflow, the popularity of Kotlin, the fourth most liked programming language in 2019, can be explained by the growing number of Android users and therefore Android-based devices. In addition, Google declared Kotlin as "the premium language for developing Android ", which increased Kotlin's adoption.

Kotlin's Pros

  • It is quite efficient.
  • Like many other modern languages, Kotlin offers features such as "Null pointer safety" and "Type Inference".
  • Since Kotlin also runs on the JVM, you can use the existing massive ecosystem of Java libraries.
  • It has surpassed Java in developing Android applications.
  • Kotlin offers a simple way to write DSL (Domain Name Specific Language).

Kotlin Usage Areas

  • 80% of its programmers use Kotlin to create Android apps, 31% for backend apps, 30% for SDKs / libraries.
  • Popular projects using Kotlin: Slack, Netflix, Evernote, Basecamp.

Golang (Go)

Go language, also known as Golang, was developed at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Ken Thompson and Rob Pike.
GO: COMBINES PYTHON'S SIMPLICITY AND EFFICIENCY WITH THE POWER OF C.

Go language, also known as Golang, was developed at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Ken Thompson and Rob Pike.

Although it is not very popular these days and is difficult to learn, if you can take some time and become an expert in Go, there are not many Go developers that could open a new door to your career.

Pros of Go:

  • Go is a really fast language as it is compiled into machine code .
  • Its syntax is small compared to other languages ​​and easy to learn.
  • It has the standard library that provides useful built-in functions for working with primitive types.
  • Go makes simultaneous programming easy.

Cons of Go:

  • It is difficult to learn.
  • Library support is insufficient.
  • It has implicit interfaces.
  • Dependency Management is problematic.

Usage Areas of Go:

  • Console utilities
  • GUI applications
  • Web applications
  • System Programming
  • Serverless Computing
  • Business applications
  • Cloud Based Development
  • IOT - Internet of Things